The tibia is that major bone of the lower leg, usually stated as the shin bone. Fracture in Tibia bone can occur from various kinds of injuries. Tibia fractures may occur in various sizes and shapes, and every fracture should be treated after considering individual factors.
In general, tibia fractures may be classified into 3 categories based on the fracture site. Specific problems concerning these fractures are discussed here. It should be noted that compound or open, fractures must be treated specially. Open fractures happen when the fractured bone is open through the skin. These fractures have a higher risk of developing an infection, and normally, need surgical treatment in all cases.
- Tibial shaft fractures– Tibial shaft fractures are the most common kind of tibia fracture and occur between the knee and ankle joints. Most of the tibial shaft fractures can be treated in a long leg cast. However, some fractures have an excessive amount of displacement or angulation and may need to realign as well as secure the bones.
- Tibial Plateau Fractures– Tibial plateau fractures occur just under the knee joint. These fractures need consideration of the knee joint and its cartilage surface. Tibial plateau fractures can result in a chance of developing knee arthritis.
- Tibial Plateau Fractures– Tibial plafond fractures occur under of the shin bone round the ankle joint. These fractures also need special consideration due to the ankle cartilage surface. Tibial plafond fractures are also concerning due to potential damage to close soft tissues.
Symptoms of a tibia fracture
Tibia fractures are caused mostly due to high-energy injuries involving automobile collisions, falls, or sports injuries from a height. Tibia fractures & insufficiency fractures resulting from osteoporosis or bone thinning are less common. Some of the symptoms of a tibia fracture include:
- Deformity of the leg
- Tenderness directly over the shin bone
- Bruising and swelling around the injured bone
- Inability to put weight on the leg
If you’ve got a suspicion that you, or somebody you’re helping to care, has a tibia fracture, it should be referred to an orthopedist of emergency department of a hospital.
X-rays are the most useful test to diagnose a tibia fracture, and usually the only test required, even when surgery is being contemplated for treatment. Different tests can be useful including CAT and MRI scans. When the fracture includes the part around the knee or ankle joint, a CAT scan can facilitate your surgeon to plan how to reconstruct the vital surface of the joint. MRIs are usually used if there is a question of fracture diagnosis, such as stress fractures of the tibia.
Treatment of tibia fractures
When determining the treatment of a tibia fracture, the following factors should be considered:
- Displacement of the fracture
- Location of the location
- Alignment of the fracture
- Patient general health
- Associated injuries
- Soft-tissue state around the fracture
Not every tibia fracture requires a surgery, and several can be managed with immobilization and limitations in weight-bearing activity. In several of these cases, a cast is utilized for treatment. In other circumstances, the fracture alignment or stability may be such that surgery is more helpful for proper healing of the bone. The surgical procedure requires use of orthopedic implants.
In surgical treatment, choice for implant can differ and may include bone plates, pins, bone screws, and rods. Again, the precise method to repair a tibia fracture is extremely dependent on the type and severity of the injury. Surgery may be done as an emergency soon after the injury, or in some cases, it may be delayed till soft-tissue injuries and swelling have started healing.
Recovery time is also extremely variable and rely on the specific circumstances of the fracture and treatment provided. In general, tibia fractures take a minimum of 3 months for healing, and several can take much longer for a complete recovery.
Siora Surgicals Pvt. Ltd. is a renowned manufacturer of Orthopedic Implants and Instruments. It offers multiple Bone Plates – conventional as well as Locking Plates, Anatomical Plates for different types and locations of tibia fracture as also Interlocking Nailing System. The implant range is supplemented with special Orthopedic Instruments to assist the Orthopedic Surgeon to properly place the chosen implant at Tibia fracture site.