For the learners, there are different subjects in the field of science that can help thelearner to get command on important branches such as chemistry, biology, and physics. For those who want to understand various chemicals and interested in making a future career in this field, it is important to have afirm grip on the subject of chemistry. The CBSE book of standard 12 also focuses on some of the major aspects of the field that can help the learner understand the subject well.
Class 12 Chemistry comprises of fourteen chapters in total, and the initial chapters delve deeper into the topics that the students have already been introduced to in the previous classes. The CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 deals with the very basic concepts of Chemistry in a more detailed fashion. The topics one studies under this chapter are:
Chapter 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- Importance of Chemistry
- Nature of Matter
- Properties of Matter and their Measurement: The International System of Units (SI); Mass and Weight
- Uncertainty in Measurement: Scientific Notation; Signification Figures; Dimensional Analysis
- Laws of Chemical Combinations: Law of Conservation of Mass; Law of Definite proportions; Law of multiple proportions; Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes; Avogardo Law
- Dalton’s Atomic Theory
- Atomic and Molecular Masses: Atomic Mass; Average Atomic Mass; Molecular Mass; Formula Mass
- Mole Concept and Molar Masses
- Percentage of Composition: Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula
- Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations: Limiting Reagent; Reactions in Solutions
The CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 2 deals with the basic structure of atom along with the proposition of different models by different scientists. The following topics are taught in this chapter:
Chapter 2: Structure of Atom:
- Sub-AtomicParticles: Discovery of Electron and Charge to Mass ratio of Electron as well as Charge on the Electron, Discovery of protons and neutrons
- Atomic Models: Thomson Model of Atom, Rutherford’s Nuclear model of atom, Atomic number and mass number, Isobars and Isotopes, Drawbacks of Rutherford’s model
- Development leading to the Bohr’s model of atom: Wave nature of electromagnetic radiation, Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation: Planck’s quantum theory
- Photoelectric effect and dual behavior of electromagnetic radiation
- Evidence for the quantized electronic energy levels: Atomic spectra
- Bohr’s model for hydrogen atom: Explanation of line Spectrum of hydrogen, limitations of Bohr’s Model
- Towards Quantum Mechanical model of the atom: Dual Behavior of Matter, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
- Quantum Mechanical Model ofAtom: Orbitals and Quantum numbers, Shapes of Atomic Orbitals, Energies of Orbitals, Filling of Orbitals in atoms, Electronic Configuration of Atoms, Stability of Completely filled and half-filled subshells.
The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry and Structure of atoms substantiate on the various questions which are related to these two chapters. One can find both short and long questions which will help not only to revise the whole chapters but also to score high marks in the final examinations and also in the competitive examinations.